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Financial Planning|金融計畫

Financial planning is the task of determining how a business will afford to achieve its strategic goals and objectives. Usually, a company creates a Financial Plan immediately after the vision and objectives have been set.|財務規劃是確定企業如何能夠實現其戰略目標和任務的任務。通常情況下,公司在設定願景和目標後立即制定財務計劃。

Management consulting is the practice of helping organizations to improve their performance, operating primarily through the analysis of existing organizational problems and the development of plans for improvement. Organizations may draw upon the services of management consultants for a number of reasons, including gaining external (and presumably objective) advice and access to the consultants’ specialized expertise. Consultants have specialised skills on tasks that would involve high internal coordination costs for clients, such as organization-wide changes or the implementation of information technology. In addition, because of economies of scale, their focus and experience in gathering information worldwide and across industries renders their information search less costly than for clients.|管理諮詢是幫助組織提高績效的實踐,主要通過分析現有組織問題和製定改進計劃來實施。出於各種原因,組織可能會利用管理顧問的服務,包括獲得外部(並可能是客觀的)建議以及獲得顧問的專業知識。顧問具有專門的技能來完成對客戶的內部協調成本較高的任務,例如整個組織範圍的變化或信息技術的實施。此外,由於規模經濟,他們在全球和跨行業收集信息的重點和經驗使他們的信息搜索成本比客戶低。

As a result of their exposure to, and relationships with numerous organizations, consulting firms are typically aware of industry “best practices.” However, the specific nature of situations under consideration may limit the ability to transfer such practices from one organization to another.|由於他們的接觸以及與眾多組織的關係,諮詢公司通常會意識到行業的“最佳實踐”。然而,所考慮的情況的具體性質可能會限制將此類實踐從一個組織轉移到另一個組織的能力。

Consultancies may also provide organizational change|諮詢還可以提供組織變革

management assistance, development of coaching skills, process analysis, technology implementation, strategy development, or operational improvement services. Management consultants often bring their own proprietary methodologies or frameworks to guide the identification of problems, and to serve as the basis for recommendations for more effective or efficient ways of performing work tasks. The premier global qualification for a management consulting practitioner is Certified Management Consultant or CMC.|管理援助,培訓輔導技能,流程分析,技術實施,戰略發展或運營改進服務。管理顧問通常會帶來他們自己的專有方法或框架來指導問題的確定,並為建立更有效或更高效的工作任務提供建議。管理諮詢從業者的首要全球資質是認證管理顧問或CMC。

Approaches|途徑

In general, various approaches to consulting can be thought of as lying somewhere along a continuum, with an ‘expert’ or prescriptive approach at one end, and a facilitative approach at the other. In the expert approach, the consultant takes the role of expert, and provides expert advice or assistance to the client, with, compared to the facilitative approach, less input from, and fewer collaborations with the client(s).|總的來說,各種諮詢方法可以被認為是位於一個連續統一體的某個地方,一端是“專家”或規定性方法,另一端是促進性方法。在專家方法中,諮詢顧問扮演專家的角色,向客戶提供專家建議或幫助,與促進性方法相比,客戶的投入少,並且與客戶的協作少。

Specialization|專業化

Management consulting refers generally to the provision of business services.|管理諮詢一般是指提供商業服務。

  • Sole proprietorship|獨資
  • Partnership|合夥
  • Corporation|公司
  • Franchises|特許經營

In the UK, the use of external management consultants within government has sometimes been contentious due to perceptions of variable value for money. From 1997 to 2006, for instance, the UK government reportedly spent £20 billion on management consultants, raising questions in the House of Commons as to the returns upon such investment.|

在英國,政府內部使用外部管理顧問有時因為對貨幣價值的可變性認識而引發爭議。例如,據報導,從1997年到2006年,英國政府花費了200億英鎊用於管理顧問,在眾議院提出了有關這種投資回報的問題。

The UK has also experimented with providing longer-term use of management consultancy techniques provided internally, particularly to the high-demand consultancy arenas of local government and the National Health Service; the Local Government Association’s Improvement and Development Agency and the public health National Support Teams; both generated positive feedback at cost levels considered a fraction of what external commercial consultancy input would have incurred.|英國還試驗了長期使用內部提供的管理諮詢技術,特別是為地方政府和國家衛生服務部門提供高需求的諮詢服務; 地方政府協會的改進和發展機構以及公共衛生國家支持小組; 都在成本水平上產生了積極的反饋,被認為是外部商業諮詢投入會產生的一小部分。

In New Zealand the government has historically had a greater role in providing some infrastructure and services than in some other countries. Contributing reasons included insufficient scale in the private sector, smaller capital markets and historic political support for government service provision. Current infrastructure investment plans are open to a range of public/private partnerships.|在新西蘭,政府歷史上在提供一些基礎設施和服務方面比其他一些國家有更大的作用。造成的原因包括私營部門規模不足,資本市場規模較小以及政府提供服務的歷史政治支持。目前的基礎設施投資計劃面向一系列公私合作夥伴關係。

New Zealand governments hire in expertise to complement the advice of professional public servants. While management consultants contribute to policy and to strategy development, the Government tends to use management consultants for strategic review and for strategy execution.|新西蘭政府聘請專業人士來補充專業公務人員的建議。儘管管理顧問為政策和戰略發展做出貢獻,但政府傾向於使用管理顧問進行戰略評估和戰略執行。

1988年,新當選的格瑞納州政府委託Booz Allen Hamilton向國家鐵路局提交報告。

結果報告建議多達8000個失業人員,其中包括從94個國家鐵路站撤出工作人員,在Nyngan-Bourke線,Queanbeyan-Cooma線和Glen Innes-Wallangarra線撤銷服務,中止若干國家旅客服務堪培拉XPT,銀城彗星到布羅肯希爾和各種內燃機車牽引服務)以及從布里斯班和墨爾本的服務中刪除臥舖列車。

報告還建議取消所有國家的客運服務和小型貨運業務,但政府不認為這在政治上是可行的。SRA分為多個業務單元 – CityRail,負責城市鐵路; CountryLink負責國家旅客服務; FreightRail,負責貨運服務; 和Rail Estate負責鐵路物業。

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